Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/ <p><strong>Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads</strong><strong> – ISSN </strong><strong>2785-0943 </strong>is an open access journal which aims to host research within the field of linguistic typology. It is meant to give space above all, but not exclusively, to studies exploring the crossroads at which linguistic typology meets its closest neighbors.</p> FICLIT, LILEC – Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna en-US Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads 2785-0943 Hypothetical manner constructions in world-wide perspective https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13415 <p>Similatives (e.g. she swims like a fish) have been the focus of a number of investigations (e.g. Treis &amp;&nbsp;Vanhove 2017). However, hypothetical manner constructions (e.g. She treats me as if I were a&nbsp;stranger) have received little attention cross-linguistically. Therefore, our typological knowledge of&nbsp;this type of comparative clause is still in its infancy. This paper offers an analysis of the cross-linguistic&nbsp;variation in the expression of hypothetical manner constructions in a sample of 61 languages. Among&nbsp;the most common strategies found are similative ‘like’ markers and free adverbial conjunctions. Also&nbsp;discussed are other rare strategies, which seem to show clear areal patterns. In particular, some&nbsp;languages from Mesoamerica use correlative words, some Australian languages use counterfactual&nbsp;mood markers and some African languages employ head nouns meaning ‘thing’. This paper also&nbsp;explores whether hypothetical manner constructions show formal resemblances to other&nbsp;constructions.</p> Jesús Francisco Olguín Martinéz Copyright (c) 2021 Jesús Francisco Olguín Martinéz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 6 46 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13415 Expressing equality and similarity in English, Italian, and Ladin: Interlingual contrastive features and micro-variation https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13428 <div><span lang="EN-US">Rather exceptionally among European languages, English has two standard markers, namely <em>as</em> and <em>like</em>, which make a formal distinction between equative and similative constructions. It is well known that clauses with <em>as</em> and phrasal adjuncts with <em>like</em> tend to be carefully distinguished in British formal usage. The present article uses English as a hallmark for the identification of relevant semantic distinctions within the field of equality and similarity comparison in the Ladin variety spoken in the South-Tyrolean valley of Badia, which forms part of the Rhaeto-Romance territory of Italy, and which is still under-researched in many domains. This article intends to contribute to the current discussion on quantitative and qualitative comparison by providing novel information on Ladin, which has not been an object of investigation with respect to comparative constructions. The comparative system of Ladin is illustrated from a cross-linguistic perspective, drawing comparisons with English and Italian, with which it has much in common, but from which it also differs in a number of respects. The article also shows how the Ladin system varies at a micro-level within one valley. While the vernacular in the lower part of the valley has markers that distinguish between clausal and phrasal complements, the linguistic variety in the upper part of the valley makes no such distinction. Despite highlighting cross-linguistic differences, this study serves as a further confirmation of typological tendencies.</span></div> Martina Irsara Copyright (c) 2021 Martina Irsara https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 47 93 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13428 Comparative constructions in Suansu and the languages of northeastern India [Not quotable] https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13429 <p>This paper provides a first description of comparative constructions in Suansu, an unreported Tibeto-Burman language spoken in northeastern India, and frames the characteristics of Suansu comparative constructions from a typological perspective (following Stassen’s 1985 classification). To this purpose, comparative constructions from a sample of 28 Tibeto-Burman languages of the area are collected in an ad-hoc designed database and typologically discussed. Results reveal the presence of two main types that cluster geographically in the region, as well as high internal variation with respect to the subtypes. Based on the classification, Suansu is assigned to the Exceed comparative type, the only representative of this type in the sample.</p> <hr /> <p><strong>2021-10-11 – Editor's Note</strong></p> <p>In agreement with the Author, the Editors have temporarily retracted the article “Comparative constructions in Suansu and the languages of northeastern India”. After publication of the article, well-founded concerns were brought to the attention of the Editors regarding the representation of some of the data presented. The Editors requested the author to correct these data accordingly. An amended version of the article will be published in a subsequent issue of the journal after a new round of revision. The temporarily retracted article must not be quoted.</p> Jessica Ivani Copyright (c) 2021 Jessica Ivani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 94 123 The comparative cycle in crosslinguistic perspective https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13430 <p>This paper traces the diachronic development of comparison constructions crosslinguistically, highlighting a recurrent pattern of change with respect to standard markers: the comparative cycle. Using diachronic corpus data as well as data from descriptive grammars and handbooks, it is demonstrated that comparison particles and other standard markers in many languages undergo a syntactic-semantic distributional shift from marking equality to marking inequality. More specifically, we witness a stepwise and recurrent – i.e. cyclical – shift of standard markers from similatives to equatives and to comparatives. The comparative cycle is compared to other instances of cyclical change and linked to linguistic economy and the markedness hierarchy of comparison constructions.</p> Agnes Jäger Copyright (c) 2021 Agnes Jäger https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 124 178 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13430 Comparative of inferiority: marking and aspects of use https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13432 <p>In this paper the comparative of inferiority (‘A is less tall than B’) is discussed in regards to its coding and functioning. The classification of the marking is based on the connection of the marking of inferiority to the marking of other constructions of comparison. Thus, two main types of the marking are distinguished: specific and derived.&nbsp; The discussion of some problematic issues connected to the comparative of inferiority accompanies the description of the marking. The findings in the marking are interpreted as signs of the markedness of the comparative of inferiority. The remaining part of the paper is devoted to the description of the functions of the comparative of inferiority and its aspects of use as suggested by the data from Russian.</p> Valeria Modina Copyright (c) 2021 Valeria Modina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 179 222 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13432 Small events. Verbal diminutives in the languages of the world https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13427 <p>Diminutives are typically nouns. However, verbs can also be diminutivised, i.e. marked for reduced intensity, duration, seriousness or success of the action or event. This paper is a first attempt at a typology of verbal diminutives, based on a balanced sample of 248 languages. We discuss the analytical and terminological challenges that arise from the study of a category that is not widely recognised and does not have an established place in grammatical descriptions. Our sample shows that verbal diminutives occur across the world, with a slightly higher predominance in the Americas and somewhat fewer cases in Africa. Among the language families, Austronesian has the highest percentage of verbal diminutives in our sample. We present our results for the various formal exponents of verbal diminution on the one hand and the array of semantic effects on the other. Meanings are separated into three categories: attenuation in quantity, attenuation in quality and affective meanings. In many cases, markers of verbal diminution encode additional meanings, some of which contradict the core meaning of attenuation by expressing intensity, durativity or iteration. Such apparent paradoxes have parallels in nominal diminutives. The paper closes with recommendations for further research.</p> Jenny Audring Sterre Leufkens Eva van Lier Copyright (c) 2021 Jenny Audring, Sterre Leufkens, Eva van Lier https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 223 256 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13427 Diachronic evolution of Russian standard markers <em>kako</em> and <em>aky</em> https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13431 <p>Modern Russian uses the same marker <em>kak</em> ‘how’ to introduce the standard in equative and similative constructions. Historical grammars claim that the same polysemy is found in Old Russian, where three markers, <em>kako</em>, <em>aky</em> and <em>jako</em>, are used interchangeably. Based on the analysis of chronicles and documents of the 11<sup>th</sup>–15<sup>th</sup> centuries and queries in the Russian National Corpus, we show that it is not the case: the markers <em>kako</em> and <em>aky</em> are distributed functionally. In the 11<sup>th</sup>–15<sup>th</sup> centuries <em>kako</em> is predominantly used in specific contexts which we propose to call “implicit parameter equative” (IPE), while <em>aky</em> is the main standard marker in similatives. In the 16<sup>th</sup> and 17<sup>th</sup>centuries <em>kako</em> expands onto similative and equative constructions. The 18<sup>th</sup> century sees the complete loss of <em>aky</em>and the fossilization of the equative construction including the correlative pairs such as <em>tak(oj)… kak, stol’… kak</em> and others. As for the marker <em>jako, </em>it is a general subordinator that can be used in all the relevant contexts.</p> Irina Kobozeva Natalia Serdobolskaya Copyright (c) 2021 Irina Kobozeva, Natalia Serdobolskaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 257 287 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13431 Comparative constructions across the German minorities of Italy: a semasiological approach https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13416 <p>Comparative constructions of inequality display a recurrent pattern throughout all Germanic languages, which is partially inherited from the Indo-European mother tongue. This common semasiological format consists in a copulative construction in which the adjective expressing the quality carries a comparative suffix and is accompanied by a particle introducing the standard. For the latter, a morpheme coming from various onomasiological domains is generally recruited. After a general overview of the construction within the Germanic family, the paper will focus on its consistency in the German linguistic islands of Northern Italy, where a remarkable variety is found, which is only partially due to the long-standing contact with Romance languages. Besides an overview of the Bavarian islands of the North-East, particular attention is devoted to the Walser German islands of the North-West, where a number of peculiar patterns are found, which partially reflect structural possibilities attested in earlier stages of the German-speaking territory, but also display unique developments such as for instance the comparative particle <em>ŝchu</em> ‘so’ found in Rimella.</p> Livio Gaeta Copyright (c) 2021 Livio Gaeta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 288 332 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13416 Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13473 <p>Welcome to <em>Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads </em>(LTC), a new journal dedicated to the crossroads where linguistic typology meets its neighboring fields.</p> <p>A crossroads is not only and necessarily a place where a choice must be made: this is the point of view of the traveler, wondering which way to go. If we take a bird’s-eye view and observe the crossroads from above, we see much more than choices. A Crossroads is the place where different directions, and different travelers, meet or follow each other. Thanks to the crossroads, it is possible to change and exchange, and the very concept of ‘step forward’ opens itself to diagonals and curves. The crossroads is where future is imagined and innovation occurs, thanks to the reciprocal influence of intersecting perspectives.</p> <p>Crossroads means meeting, exchanging, converging, choosing, diverging, changing, and possibly making the difference.</p> <p>This journal aims to take the point of view of the crossroads, capturing the moment when linguistic typology intersects other fields, changing and exchanging methods, theories and data, in the belief that a closer look at the crossroads may reveal converging paths and new directions to go.</p> Caterina Mauri Nicola Grandi Francesca Di Garbo Andrea Sansò Copyright (c) 2021 Caterina Mauri; Nicola Grandi, Francesca Di Garbo, Andrea Sansò https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 1 1 1 5 10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13473