Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/ <p><strong>Linguistic Typology at the Crossroads</strong><strong> – ISSN </strong><strong>2785-0943 </strong>is an open access journal which aims to host research within the field of linguistic typology. It is meant to give space above all, but not exclusively, to studies exploring the crossroads at which linguistic typology meets its closest neighbors.</p> en-US ltc.journal@unibo.it (Editorial Team) ojs@unibo.it (OJS Support) Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Extending the typology: negative concord and connective negation in Persian https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13883 <p>This paper aims to advance the general understanding of negative concord (as in English <em>We don’t need no education</em>) and connective negation (as in English <em>neither … nor’</em>) through an analysis of Persian. For negative concord with indefinites the analysis highlights differences between human vs. non-human and pronominal vs. nominal negative concord. It also deals with the problem that <em>hič</em>, the word that arguably marks negation in negative indefinites, also has a non-negative emphatic meaning in questions. For the relation between negative concord and connective negation the paper suggests the importance of two new parameters: (i) are the connective negator and the normal clausal negator similar? and (ii) can one of two negatively connected phrases precede the verb and the other follow it?</p> <div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Johan van der Auwera, Sepideh Koohkan Copyright (c) 2022 Johan van der Auwera, Sepideh Koohkan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13883 Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Deictic marking in adpositions in Ap Ma and Waran https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13575 <p>Two neighboring languages of the Sepik region of Papua New Guinea, Ap Ma (Keram) and Waran (Ramu), exhibit an unusual structure in adpositional phrases. In both languages, all postpositions that govern nouns are obligatorily marked with deictic prefixes that indicate the position of the referent of the NP relative to the deictic center. Both languages employ deictic morphemes that index whether a referent is near, medial, or far. In addition to having many crosslinguistically common and expected applications, these morphemes also occur as obligatory elements in adpositional phrases. This article examines the details of these unusual deictic-marked adpositional constructions, placing them in a typological context. We conclude that diachronic changes in Ap Ma phonology were likely the historical impetus for these constructions, which may have subsequently spread to Waran through contact.</p> Don Killian, Russell Barlow Copyright (c) 2022 Don Killian, Russell Barlow https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13575 Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Comparative constructions in Suansu and the languages of northeastern India https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/14379 <p>This paper provides a first description of comparative constructions in Suansu, an unreported Tibeto-Burman language spoken in northeastern India, and frames the characteristics of Suansu comparative constructions from a typological perspective (following Stassen’s 1985 classification). To this purpose, comparative constructions from a sample of 25 Tibeto-Burman languages of the area are collected in an ad-hoc designed database and typologically discussed. Results reveal the presence of two main types that cluster geographically in the region, as well as high internal variation with respect to the subtypes. Based on the classification, Suansu is assigned to the Exceed comparative type, the only representative of this type in the sample.</p> Jessica Katiuscia Ivani Copyright (c) 2022 Jessica Katiuscia Ivani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/14379 Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Verb-argument lability and its correlations with other typological parameters. A quantitative corpus-based study https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13861 <p>We investigate the correlations between A- and P-lability for verbal arguments with other typological parameters using large, syntactically annotated corpora of online news in 28 languages. To estimate how much lability is observed in a language, we measure associations between Verbs or Verb + Noun combinations and the alternating constructions in which they occur. Our correlational analyses show that high P-lability scores correlate strongly with the following parameters: little or no case marking; weaker associations between lexemes and the grammatical roles A and P; rigid order of Subject and Object; and a high proportion of verb-medial clauses (SVO). Low P-lability correlates with the presence of case marking, stronger associations between nouns and grammatical roles, relatively flexible ordering of Subject and Object, and verb-final order. As for A-lability, it is not correlated with any other parameters. A possible reason is that A-lability is a result of more universal discourse processes, such as deprofiling of the object, and also exhibits numerous lexical and semantic idiosyncrasies. The fact that P-lability is strongly correlated with other parameters can be interpreted as evidence for a more general typology of languages, in which some tend to have highly informative morphosyntactic and lexical cues, whereas others rely predominantly on contextual environment, which is possibly due to fixed word order. We also find that P-lability is more strongly correlated with the other parameters than any of these parameters are with each other, which means that it can be a very useful typological variable.&nbsp;</p> Natalia Levshina, John A. Hawkins Copyright (c) 2022 Natalia Levshina, John A. Hawkins https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13861 Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Typology and usage. The case of negation https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13508 <div><span lang="EN-GB">Linguistic typology has recently started paying more and more attention to language use as an explanatory factor.&nbsp;In this approach, naturally occurring discourse data is used to account for the attested cross-linguistic patterns. This article offers a theoretical and methodological discussion of the usage-based approach taking the typology of negation as a case study. Negation is a particularly suitable domain for this kind of discussion, since (a) it is universally present in the world’s languages and relatively frequent in discourse, (b) it is well-studied from a typological point of view, and (c) due to&nbsp;its unique pragmatic status,&nbsp;it shows&nbsp;a variety of discourse effects&nbsp;that can be possibly linked to cross-linguistic generalizations. We pay specific attention to negation in non-main clauses, a previously understudied combination that can be expected to provide valuable insights due to some important similarities between the two domains.</span></div> Matti Miestamo, Ksenia Shagal, Olli O. Silvennoinen Copyright (c) 2022 Matti Miestamo, Ksenia Shagal, Olli O. Silvennoinen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13508 Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200