Comparative constructions across the German minorities of Italy: a semasiological approach

Authors

  • Livio Gaeta University of Turin

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2785-0943/13416

Keywords:

comparative construction, semasiology, onomasiology, language minority, linguistic island, language contact

Abstract

Comparative constructions of inequality display a recurrent pattern throughout all Germanic languages, which is partially inherited from the Indo-European mother tongue. This common semasiological format consists in a copulative construction in which the adjective expressing the quality carries a comparative suffix and is accompanied by a particle introducing the standard. For the latter, a morpheme coming from various onomasiological domains is generally recruited. After a general overview of the construction within the Germanic family, the paper will focus on its consistency in the German linguistic islands of Northern Italy, where a remarkable variety is found, which is only partially due to the long-standing contact with Romance languages. Besides an overview of the Bavarian islands of the North-East, particular attention is devoted to the Walser German islands of the North-West, where a number of peculiar patterns are found, which partially reflect structural possibilities attested in earlier stages of the German-speaking territory, but also display unique developments such as for instance the comparative particle ŝchu ‘so’ found in Rimella.

References

Angster, Marco & Bellante, Marco & Cioffi, Raffaele & Gaeta, Livio. 2017. I progetti DiWaC e ArchiWals. In Livio Gaeta (ed.), Le isole linguistiche tedescofone in Italia: situazione attuale e prospettive future (Workshop, Torino, 24 febbraio 2017). Special issue of Bollettino dell’Atlante Linguistico Italiano 41. 83-94.

Angster, Marco & Cioffi, Raffaele & Bellante, Marco & Gaeta, Livio. 2020. Corpora e varietà minoritarie: le isole walser in Italia. Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia 44. 107-125.

Burt, F. 1910. Swahili Grammar and Vocabulary. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

Bidese, Ermenegildo. 2008. Die diachronische Syntax des Zimbrischen. Tübingen: Narr.

Bidese, Ermenegildo Bidese. (eds.) 2010. Il cimbro negli studi di linguistica. Padova: Unipress.

Bidese, Ermenegildo & Cognola, Federica. (eds.) 2013. Introduzione alla linguistica del mòcheno. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.

Bidese, Ermenegildo, Dow, James R. & Stolz, Thomas (eds.). 2005. Das Zimbrische zwischen Germanisch und Romanisch. Bochum: Brockmeyer.

Bergmann, Gunter. 1990. Upper Saxon. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 290-312. London: Routledge.

Bohnenberger, Karl. 1913. Die Mundart der deutschen Walliser im Heimattal und in den Außenorten. Frauenfeld: Huber.

Braune, Wilhelm. 2004. Gotische Grammatik. 20th edn. by Frank Heidermanns. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Brauner, Siegmund & Bantu, Joseph K. 1964. Lehrbuch des Swahili. Leipzig: Enzyklopädie-Verlag.

Croft, William. 2001. Radical Construction Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Croft, William. 2003. Typology and universals. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dal Negro, Silvia. 2004. The Decay of a Language. Bern: Lang.

Dixon, Robert M. W. 2012. Basic Linguistic Theory 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Donaldson, Bruce C. 1993. A grammar of Afrikaans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

DUDEN = Duden. Die Grammatik, 8th edn. Mannheim: Dudenverlag.

Durrell, Martin. 1990. North Central Westphalian. In. Charles V. J Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 59-90. London: Routledge.

Durrell, Martin & Davies, Winifred V. 1990. Hessian. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 210-240. London: Routledge.

DWB = Grimm, Jacob & Grimm, Wilhelm. 1854-1961. Deutsches Wörterbuch. Leipzig: Hirzel.

Ebert, Robert P. & Reichmann, Oskar & Solms, Hans-Joachim & Wegera, Klaus-Petera. 1993. Frühneuhochdeutsche Grammatik. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Eufe, Rembert & Mader, Anna. 2018. Das Walserdeutsche im deutschen und italienischen Sprachgebiet. In Nicole Eller-Wildfeuer & Paul Rössler & Alfred Wildfeuer (eds.), Alpindeutsch, 113-138. Regensburg: vulpes.

Fleischer, Jürg. 2007. Zur Herkunft des flektierten prädikativen Adjektivs im Höchstalemannischen. Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 74. 196-240.

Freimann, Annick & Lemal, Carine & Simon, Isabelle & Lulling, Jérôme & Sgiarovello, Alain. Lëtzebuergesch léiere mat MP3 (https://www.vdl.lu).

Gaeta, Livio. 2013. Existential constructions: a semasiological perspective. In Elly van Gelderen & Michela Cennamo & Jóhanna Barðdal (eds.), Argument Structure in flux: the Naples/Capri Papers, 477-510. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Gaeta, Livio. 2018. Im Passiv sprechen in den Alpen. Sprachwissenschaft 43. 221-250.

Gaeta, Livio. 2020. Remotivating inflectional classes: An unexpected effect of grammaticalization. In Bridget Drinka (ed.), Historical Linguistics 2017. Selected papers from the 23rd International Conference on Historical Linguistics, San Antonio, Texas, 31 July – 4 August 2017, 205-227. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Gaeta, Livio. In press. The Observer’s Paradox meets Corpus Linguistics: Written and oral sources for the Walser linguistic islands in Italy. In Genesin, Monica, Hempel, Gerhard & Kahl, Thede (eds.), Endangered linguistic varieties and minorities in Italy and the Balkans. Vienna: VLACH.

Gaeta, Livio & Bellante, Marco & Cioffi, Raffaele & Angster, Marco. 2019. Conservazione e innovazione nelle varietà walser: i progetti DiWaC e ArchiWals. In Rosselli Del Turco, Roberto (ed.), Dall’indoeuropeo al germanico: problemi di linguistica storica, 141-193. Alessandria: dell’Orso.

Goltz, Reinhard H. & Walker, Alastair G. H. 1990. North Saxon. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 31-58. London: Routledge.

Geeraerts, Dirk. 2010. Theories of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Glynn, Dylan. 2015. Semasiology and onomasiology. In Jocelyne Daems & Eline Zenner & Kris Heylen & Dirk Speelman & Hubert Cuyckens (eds.), Change of Paradigms – New Paradoxes. Recontextualizing Language and Linguistics. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 47-79.

Green, W. A. I. 1990. The Dialects of the Palatinate (Das Pfälzische). In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 241-264. London: Routledge.

Haldeman, S. S. 1872. Pennsylvania Dutch. London: Trübner.

Harbert, Wayne. 2007. The Germanic Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heine, Bernd. 1997. Cognitive Foundations of Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Helbig, Gerhard & Buscha, Joachim. 1991. Deutsche Grammatik. Leipzig: Langenscheidt.

Hopper, Paul J. 1975. The syntax of the simple sentence in Proto-Germanic. The Hague: Mouton.

Jacobs, Neil G. 2005. Yiddish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kranzmayer, Eberhard. 1981. Laut- und Flexionslehre der deutschen zimbrischen Mundart. Ed. by Maria Hornung. Vienna: VWGÖ.

Lehmann, Winfred P. 1975. A Grammar of Proto-Germanic. University of Texas at Austin: Linguistics Research Center. (https://liberalarts.utexas.edu/lrc/resources/books/pgmc/)

Maitz, Péter & Lindenfelser, Siegwalt & Volker, Craig A. In press. Unserdeutsch (Rabaul Creole German), Papua New Guinea. In Hans C. Boas & Deumert, Ana Deumert & Mark L. Louden & Péter Maitz (eds.), Varieties of German Worldwide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Malherbe, Michel & Cheikh, Sall. 1989. Parlons Wolof. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Moulton, William G. 1941. Swiss German Dialect and Romance Patois. (Yale University Diss. Supplement to Language 17). Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America.

Orel, Vladimir. 1998. Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Leiden: Brill.

PALWaM = Antonietti, Federica & Valenti, Monica & Angster, Marco (eds.). 2015. Piccolo Atlante Linguistico dei Walser Meridionali. Aosta: Tipografia Valdostana.

Paul, Hermann. 2007. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik. 25th edn. by Thomas Klein & Hans-Joachim Solms & Klaus-Petera Wegera & Prell, Heinz-Peter Prell. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Philipp, Marthe & Bothorel-Witz, Arlette. 1990. Low Alemannic. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 313-336. London: Routledge.

Press, Ian. 1986. A Grammar of Modern Breton. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Philipp, Marthe & Bothorel-Witz, Arlette. 1990. Low Alemannic. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 313-336. London: Routledge.

Postma, Gertjan. 2019. A Contrastive Grammar of Brazilian Pomeranian. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Reese, Johannes. 2007. Swiss German. München: Lincom.

Rizzi, Enrico. 1993. Storia dei Walser. Anzola d’Ossola (Novara): Fondazione Arch. Enrico Monti.

Rowley, Anthony R. 2010. Deskriptive Grammatik des Deutsch-Fersentalerischen (Mòcheno). Frankfurt/Main: Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg.

Russ, Charles V. J. 1990. Swabian. High Alemannic. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 337-393. London: Routledge.

Slaviero, Girardo. [1760] 1991. Grammatica della lingua tedesca dei VII Comuni. Giazza: Taucias Garëida.

Schönfeld, Helmut. 1990. East Low German. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 91-135. London: Routledge.

Schrodt, Richard. 2004. Althochdeutsche Grammatik II. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Spangenberg, Karl. 1990. Thuringian. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 265-289. London: Routledge.

Stassen, Leon. 1985. Comparison and Universal Grammar. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Šticha, František. 2011. Der kommunikative und der systembezogene Status grammatischer Phänomene mit niedriger Häufigkeit. In Marek Konopka & Jacqueline Kubczak & Christian Mair & František Štícha & Ulrich Hermann Waßner (eds.), Grammatik und Korpora. Dritte Internationale Konferenz. Mannheim, 22.-24.9.2009, 473-484. Tübingen: Narr.

Stolz, Thomas. 2013. Competing Comparative Constructions in Europe. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

SW = Antonietti, Federica (ed.). 2010. Scrivere tra i Walser. Borgomanero: Litopress.

SWB = Schmeller, Johann A. 1855. Cimbrisches Wörterbuch. Vienna: Hof- und Staatsdruckerei. [Ed. by Guus Kroonen. Copenhagen University, 2012]

Tiersma, Pieter. M. 1999. Frisian Reference Grammar. Ljouwert: Fryske Akademy.

Tosco, Mauro. 2001. The Dhaasanac language. Köln: Köppe.

Tyroller, Hans. 2003. Grammatische Beschreibung des Zimbrischen in Lusern. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Wiesinger, Peter. 1990. The Central and Southern Bavarian Dialects in Bavaria and Austria. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 438-519. London: Routledge.

WDS = Geyer, Ingeborg & Marco Angster & Marcella Benedetti. 2014. Wortschatz aus den deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien. Bozen: Athesia.

WL = Ronco Hantsch, Imelda. 1993. Willischt leesen? Kuntjini van Esopo gchierti in töitschu. Issime.

Zürrer, Peter. 1982. Wörterbuch der Mundart von Gressoney: Mit einer Einführung in die Sprachsituation und einem grammatischen Abriss. Frauenfeld: Huber.

Zürrer, Peter. 2009. Sprachkontakt in Walser Dialekten: Gressoney und Issime im Aostatal. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Zürrer, Peter. 2011. Conservazione e mutamento nei dialetti walser in Italia. In Walter Breu (ed.), L’influsso dell’italiano sul sistema del verbo nelle lingue minoritarie, 101-121. Bochum: Brockmeyer.

Angster, Marco & Bellante, Marco & Cioffi, Raffaele & Gaeta, Livio. 2017. I progetti DiWaC e ArchiWals. In Livio Gaeta (ed.), Le isole linguistiche tedescofone in Italia: situazione attuale e prospettive future (Workshop, Torino, 24 febbraio 2017). Special issue of Bollettino dell’Atlante Linguistico Italiano 41. 83-94.

Angster, Marco & Cioffi, Raffaele & Bellante, Marco & Gaeta, Livio. 2020. Corpora e varietà minoritarie: le isole walser in Italia. Rivista Italiana di Dialettologia 44. 107-125.

Burt, F. 1910. Swahili Grammar and Vocabulary. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

Bidese, Ermenegildo. 2008. Die diachronische Syntax des Zimbrischen. Tübingen: Narr.

Bidese, Ermenegildo Bidese. (eds.) 2010. Il cimbro negli studi di linguistica. Padova: Unipress.

Bidese, Ermenegildo & Cognola, Federica. (eds.) 2013. Introduzione alla linguistica del mòcheno. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.

Bidese, Ermenegildo, Dow, James R. & Stolz, Thomas (eds.). 2005. Das Zimbrische zwischen Germanisch und Romanisch. Bochum: Brockmeyer.

Bergmann, Gunter. 1990. Upper Saxon. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 290-312. London: Routledge.

Bohnenberger, Karl. 1913. Die Mundart der deutschen Walliser im Heimattal und in den Außenorten. Frauenfeld: Huber.

Braune, Wilhelm. 2004. Gotische Grammatik. 20th edn. by Frank Heidermanns. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Brauner, Siegmund & Bantu, Joseph K. 1964. Lehrbuch des Swahili. Leipzig: Enzyklopädie-Verlag.

Croft, William. 2001. Radical Construction Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Croft, William. 2003. Typology and universals. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dal Negro, Silvia. 2004. The Decay of a Language. Bern: Lang.

Dixon, Robert M. W. 2012. Basic Linguistic Theory 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Donaldson, Bruce C. 1993. A grammar of Afrikaans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

DUDEN = Duden. Die Grammatik, 8th edn. Mannheim: Dudenverlag.

Durrell, Martin. 1990. North Central Westphalian. In. Charles V. J Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 59-90. London: Routledge.

Durrell, Martin & Davies, Winifred V. 1990. Hessian. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 210-240. London: Routledge.

DWB = Grimm, Jacob & Grimm, Wilhelm. 1854-1961. Deutsches Wörterbuch. Leipzig: Hirzel.

Ebert, Robert P. & Reichmann, Oskar & Solms, Hans-Joachim & Wegera, Klaus-Petera. 1993. Frühneuhochdeutsche Grammatik. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Eufe, Rembert & Mader, Anna. 2018. Das Walserdeutsche im deutschen und italienischen Sprachgebiet. In Nicole Eller-Wildfeuer & Paul Rössler & Alfred Wildfeuer (eds.), Alpindeutsch, 113-138. Regensburg: vulpes.

Fleischer, Jürg. 2007. Zur Herkunft des flektierten prädikativen Adjektivs im Höchstalemannischen. Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 74. 196-240.

Freimann, Annick & Lemal, Carine & Simon, Isabelle & Lulling, Jérôme & Sgiarovello, Alain. Lëtzebuergesch léiere mat MP3 (https://www.vdl.lu).

Gaeta, Livio. 2013. Existential constructions: a semasiological perspective. In Elly van Gelderen & Michela Cennamo & Jóhanna Barðdal (eds.), Argument Structure in flux: the Naples/Capri Papers, 477-510. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Gaeta, Livio. 2018. Im Passiv sprechen in den Alpen. Sprachwissenschaft 43. 221-250.

Gaeta, Livio. 2020. Remotivating inflectional classes: An unexpected effect of grammaticalization. In Bridget Drinka (ed.), Historical Linguistics 2017. Selected papers from the 23rd International Conference on Historical Linguistics, San Antonio, Texas, 31 July – 4 August 2017, 205-227. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Gaeta, Livio. In press. The Observer’s Paradox meets Corpus Linguistics: Written and oral sources for the Walser linguistic islands in Italy. In Genesin, Monica, Hempel, Gerhard & Kahl, Thede (eds.), Endangered linguistic varieties and minorities in Italy and the Balkans. Vienna: VLACH.

Gaeta, Livio & Bellante, Marco & Cioffi, Raffaele & Angster, Marco. 2019. Conservazione e innovazione nelle varietà walser: i progetti DiWaC e ArchiWals. In Rosselli Del Turco, Roberto (ed.), Dall’indoeuropeo al germanico: problemi di linguistica storica, 141-193. Alessandria: dell’Orso.

Goltz, Reinhard H. & Walker, Alastair G. H. 1990. North Saxon. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 31-58. London: Routledge.

Geeraerts, Dirk. 2010. Theories of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Glynn, Dylan. 2015. Semasiology and onomasiology. In Jocelyne Daems & Eline Zenner & Kris Heylen & Dirk Speelman & Hubert Cuyckens (eds.), Change of Paradigms – New Paradoxes. Recontextualizing Language and Linguistics. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 47-79.

Green, W. A. I. 1990. The Dialects of the Palatinate (Das Pfälzische). In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 241-264. London: Routledge.

Haldeman, S. S. 1872. Pennsylvania Dutch. London: Trübner.

Harbert, Wayne. 2007. The Germanic Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heine, Bernd. 1997. Cognitive Foundations of Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Helbig, Gerhard & Buscha, Joachim. 1991. Deutsche Grammatik. Leipzig: Langenscheidt.

Hopper, Paul J. 1975. The syntax of the simple sentence in Proto-Germanic. The Hague: Mouton.

Jacobs, Neil G. 2005. Yiddish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kranzmayer, Eberhard. 1981. Laut- und Flexionslehre der deutschen zimbrischen Mundart. Ed. by Maria Hornung. Vienna: VWGÖ.

Lehmann, Winfred P. 1975. A Grammar of Proto-Germanic. University of Texas at Austin: Linguistics Research Center. (https://liberalarts.utexas.edu/lrc/resources/books/pgmc/)

Maitz, Péter & Lindenfelser, Siegwalt & Volker, Craig A. In press. Unserdeutsch (Rabaul Creole German), Papua New Guinea. In Hans C. Boas & Deumert, Ana Deumert & Mark L. Louden & Péter Maitz (eds.), Varieties of German Worldwide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Malherbe, Michel & Cheikh, Sall. 1989. Parlons Wolof. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Moulton, William G. 1941. Swiss German Dialect and Romance Patois. (Yale University Diss. Supplement to Language 17). Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America.

Orel, Vladimir. 1998. Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Leiden: Brill.

PALWaM = Antonietti, Federica & Valenti, Monica & Angster, Marco (eds.). 2015. Piccolo Atlante Linguistico dei Walser Meridionali. Aosta: Tipografia Valdostana.

Paul, Hermann. 2007. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik. 25th edn. by Thomas Klein & Hans-Joachim Solms & Klaus-Petera Wegera & Prell, Heinz-Peter Prell. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Philipp, Marthe & Bothorel-Witz, Arlette. 1990. Low Alemannic. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 313-336. London: Routledge.

Press, Ian. 1986. A Grammar of Modern Breton. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Philipp, Marthe & Bothorel-Witz, Arlette. 1990. Low Alemannic. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 313-336. London: Routledge.

Postma, Gertjan. 2019. A Contrastive Grammar of Brazilian Pomeranian. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Reese, Johannes. 2007. Swiss German. München: Lincom.

Rizzi, Enrico. 1993. Storia dei Walser. Anzola d’Ossola (Novara): Fondazione Arch. Enrico Monti.

Rowley, Anthony R. 2010. Deskriptive Grammatik des Deutsch-Fersentalerischen (Mòcheno). Frankfurt/Main: Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg.

Russ, Charles V. J. 1990. Swabian. High Alemannic. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 337-393. London: Routledge.

Slaviero, Girardo. [1760] 1991. Grammatica della lingua tedesca dei VII Comuni. Giazza: Taucias Garëida.

Schönfeld, Helmut. 1990. East Low German. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 91-135. London: Routledge.

Schrodt, Richard. 2004. Althochdeutsche Grammatik II. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Spangenberg, Karl. 1990. Thuringian. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 265-289. London: Routledge.

Stassen, Leon. 1985. Comparison and Universal Grammar. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Šticha, František. 2011. Der kommunikative und der systembezogene Status grammatischer Phänomene mit niedriger Häufigkeit. In Marek Konopka & Jacqueline Kubczak & Christian Mair & František Štícha & Ulrich Hermann Waßner (eds.), Grammatik und Korpora. Dritte Internationale Konferenz. Mannheim, 22.-24.9.2009, 473-484. Tübingen: Narr.

Stolz, Thomas. 2013. Competing Comparative Constructions in Europe. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

SW = Antonietti, Federica (ed.). 2010. Scrivere tra i Walser. Borgomanero: Litopress.

SWB = Schmeller, Johann A. 1855. Cimbrisches Wörterbuch. Vienna: Hof- und Staatsdruckerei. [Ed. by Guus Kroonen. Copenhagen University, 2012]

Tiersma, Pieter. M. 1999. Frisian Reference Grammar. Ljouwert: Fryske Akademy.

Tosco, Mauro. 2001. The Dhaasanac language. Köln: Köppe.

Tyroller, Hans. 2003. Grammatische Beschreibung des Zimbrischen in Lusern. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Wiesinger, Peter. 1990. The Central and Southern Bavarian Dialects in Bavaria and Austria. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The Dialects of Modern German, 438-519. London: Routledge.

WDS = Geyer, Ingeborg & Marco Angster & Marcella Benedetti. 2014. Wortschatz aus den deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien. Bozen: Athesia.

WL = Ronco Hantsch, Imelda. 1993. Willischt leesen? Kuntjini van Esopo gchierti in töitschu. Issime.

Zürrer, Peter. 1982. Wörterbuch der Mundart von Gressoney: Mit einer Einführung in die Sprachsituation und einem grammatischen Abriss. Frauenfeld: Huber.

Zürrer, Peter. 2009. Sprachkontakt in Walser Dialekten: Gressoney und Issime im Aostatal. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Zürrer, Peter. 2011. Conservazione e mutamento nei dialetti walser in Italia. In Walter Breu (ed.), L’influsso dell’italiano sul sistema del verbo nelle lingue minoritarie, 101-121. Bochum: Brockmeyer.

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Published

2021-08-31

How to Cite

1.
Gaeta L. Comparative constructions across the German minorities of Italy: a semasiological approach. LTC [Internet]. 2021Jan.1 [cited 2021Oct.21];1(1):288-332. Available from: https://typologyatcrossroads.unibo.it/article/view/13416