Cross-linguistic sources of anticausative markers




diachronic typology, anticausative marking, reflexive, grammaticalization


The (anti)causative alternation, that is, the alternation whereby languages contrast intransitive verbs expressing spontaneous events with transitive ones expressing externally caused events, has been the object of extensive language-specific and cross-linguistic studies. Within this type of alternation, marking on the intransitive member goes under the name of anticausative marking, while marking on the transitive member is causative marking. Historical research has mostly focused on causatives, while the diachrony of anticausative markers has largely been neglected. In the literature, only two possible cross-linguistic sources of anticausatives are mentioned: reflexives and passives. By looking at a sample of 97 languages, in this paper I show that sources of anticausativization are much more varied than what currently reported in the literature. Taking this richer diachronic evidence into account also sheds light on some yet controversial aspects concerning the relationship between anticausativization and reflexivity.


Ahn, Mikyung & Foong Ha Yap. 2017. From middle to passive: A diachronic analysis of Korean -eci constructions. Diachronica 34(4). 437–469.

Aikhenvald, Alexandra. 2011. Word-class changing derivation in typological perspective. In Alexandra Aikhenvald & R. M. W. Dixon (eds.), Language at Large: Essays on Syntax and Semantics, 221–289. Leiden: Brill.

Alexiadou, Artemis, Elena Anagnostopoulou & Florian Schäfer. 2015. External Arguments in Transitivity Alternations: A Layering Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Alexiadou, Artemis. 2010. On the morpho-syntax of (anti-)causative verbs. In Malka Rappaport Hovav, Edit Doron & Ivy Sichel (eds.), Lexical Semantics, Syntax, and Event Structure, 177–203. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Alhoniemi, Alho. 1993. Grammatik des Tscheremissischen (Mari). Hamburg: Buske.

Allan, Rutger J. 2003. The middle voice in ancient Greek: a study in polysemy. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben.

Alpher, Barry, Nicholas Evans & Mark Harvey. 2003. Proto-Gunwinyguan verb suffixes. In Nicholas Evans (ed.), The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of Northern Australia, 305–352. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Ambouroue, Odette. 2007. Eléments de description de l’orungu. Langue bantu du Gabon (B11b). PhD Dissertation, Université Libre de Brussels.

Anderson, Gregory D. S. 2006. Auxiliary Verb Constructions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Armendáriz, Rolando Félix. 2005. A Grammar of River Warih’io. PhD Dissertation, Rice University.

Authier, Gilles. 2012. The detransitive voice in Kryz. In Gilles Authier & Katharina Haude (eds.), Ergativity, Valency and Voice, 133–164. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Bahrt, Nicklas N. 2021. Voice syncretism. Berlin: Language Science Press.

Barlow, Russel. 2018. A Grammar of Ulwa. PhD Dissertation, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa.

Beck, David. 2008. Ideophones, Adverbs, and Predicate Qualification in Upper Necaxa Totonac. International Journal of American Linguistics 74(1). 1–46.

Beck, David. 2011. Upper Necaxa Totonac Dictionary. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Beck, David. 2012. Apéndice: Tablas de morfología comparativa. In Paulette Levy & David Beck (eds.), Las lenguas totonacas y tepehuas: textos y otros materiales para su estudio, 587–596. Mexico City: UNAM Press.

Beck, David. Forthcoming. Totonacan languages. In Søren Wichmann (ed.), The Languages and Linguistics of Middle and Central America: A Comprehensive Guide. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Berrettoni, Pierangiolo. 1971. Considerazioni sui verbi latini in -scō. Studi e Saggi Linguistici 11. 89–169.

Bostoen, Koen, Sebastian Dom & Guillaume Segerer. 2015. The antipassive in Bantu. Linguistics 53(4). 731–772.

Bostoen, Koen & Yolande Nzang-Bie. 2010. On how “middle” plus “associative/reciprocal” became “passive” in the Bantu A70 languages. Linguistics 48(6). 1255–1307.

Bruening, Benjamin & Thuan Tran. 2015. The nature of the passive, with an analysis of Vietnamese. Lingua 165. 133–172.

Bugaeva, Anna. 2015. Causative constructions in Ainu: A typological perspective with remarks on the diachrony. STUF - Language Typology and Universals 68(4). 439–484.

Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins & William Pagliuca. 1994. The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Campbell, Eric. 2011. Zenzontepec Chatino Aspect Morphology and Zapotecan Verb Classes. International Journal of American Linguistics 77(2). 219–246.

Campbell, Eric. 2015. Valency classes in Zenzontepec Chatino. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency Classes in the World’s Languages, vol. 2, 1391–1426. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Castro Alves, Flávia de. 2004. O Timbira Falado Pelos Canela Apãniekrá: Uma Contribução aos Estudos da Morfossintaxe de uma Língua Jê. PhD Dissertation, Universidad Estadual de Campinas.

Cennamo, Michela. 1993. The reanalysis of reflexives: a diachronic perspective. Napoli: Liguori.

Cennamo, Michela. 2012. Aspectual Constraints on the (Anti)Causative Alternation in Old Italian. Transactions of the Philological Society 110(3). 394–421.

Cennamo, Michela. 2020a. The actualization of new voice patterns in Romance. Persistence in diversity. In Bridget Drinka (ed.), Historical Linguistics 2017, 109–142. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Cennamo, Michela. 2020b. Mechanisms and paths of grammaticalization and reanalysis in Romance. In Walter Bisang & Andrej Malchukov (eds.), Grammaticalization scenarios: cross-linguistic variation and universal tendencies. Volume 1 Grammaticalization Scenarios from Europe and Asia, 165–248. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Cennamo, Michela, Thórhallur Eythórsson & Jóhanna Barðdal. 2015. Semantic and (morpho)syntactic constraints on anticausativization: Evidence from Latin and Old Norse-Icelandic. Linguistics 53(4). 677–729.

Cohen, David, Marie-Claude Simeone-Senelle & Martine Vanhove. 2002. The grammaticalization of ‘say’ and ‘do’: An areal phenomenon in East Africa. In Tom Güldemann & Manfred von Roncador (eds.), Reported Discourse, 227–251. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Constenla Umaña, Adolfo. 1998. Gramática de lengua Guatusa. Heredia (Costa Rica): EUNA.

Creissels, Denis. 2006. Syntaxe générale: une introduction typologique. Paris: Lavoisier.

Creissels, Denis & Séckou Biaye. 2016. Le balant ganja. Dakar: IFAN Cheikh Anta Diop.

Cristofaro, Sonia. 2021. Towards a source-oriented approach to typological universals. In Peter Arkadiev, Jurgis Pakerys, Inesa Šeškauskienė & Žeimantienė Žeimantienė (eds.), Studies in Baltic and Other Languages, 97–117. Vilnius: Vilniaus Universiteto Leidykla.

Croft, William. 2012. Verbs: Aspect and Causal Structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cunha de Oliveira, Christiane. 2005. The Language of the Apinajé People of Central Brazil. Eugene: PhD Dissertation, University of Oregon (Eugene).

Daudey, Gerdine Henriëtte. 2014. A grammar of Wadu Pumi. PhD Dissertation, La Trobe University.

Dench, Alan. 1995. Martuthunira: A Language of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU.

Devos, Maud & Jenneke van der Wal (eds.). 2014. “COME” and “GO” off the Beaten Grammaticalization Path. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Dom, Sebastian, Leonid Kulikov & Koen Bostoen. 2016. The middle as a voice category in Bantu: Setting the stage for further research. Lingua Posnaniensis 58(2). 129–149.

Dunn, Michael John. 1999. A Grammar of Chukchi. PhD Dissertation, Australian National University.

Estrada Fernández, Zarina, Mercedes Tubino & Jesús Villalpando. 2015. Valency classes in Yaqui. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency Classes in the World’s Languages, vol. 2, 1359–1389. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Evans, Nicholas. 2003. Bininj Gun-Wok: A Pan-dialectal Grammar of Mayali, Kunwinjku and Kune. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU.

Fauconnier, Stefanie. 2011. Involuntary agent constructions are not directly linked to reduced transitivity. Studies in Language 35(2). 311–336.

Félix Armendáriz, Rolando. 2005. A Grammar of River Warihio (Mexico). PhD Dissertation, Rice University.

Filchenko, Andrey Yury. 2007. A grammar of Eastern Khanty. PhD Dissertation, Rice University.

Foley, William A. 1991. The Yimas Language of New Guinea. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Forker, Diana. 2013. A Grammar of Hinuq. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Frachtenberg, Leo Joachim. 1922. Coos. In Franz Boas (ed.), Handbook of American Indian Languages 2, 297–429. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Frellesvig, Bjarke & John Whitman. 2016. The historical source of the bigrade transitivity alternations in Japanese. In Taro Kageyama & Wesley M. Jacobsen (eds.), Transitivity and Valency Alternations: Studies on Japanese and Beyond, 289–310. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Frowein, Friedel Martin. 2011. A grammar of Siar, an Oceanic language of New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea. PhD Dissertation, La Trobe University.

Frowein, Friedel Martin. 2011. A grammar of Siar, an Oceanic language of New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea. PhD Dissertation, La Trobe University.

Gates, Jesse P., Sami Honkasalo & Yunfan Lai. 2022. From transitive to intransitive and voiceless to voiced in Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Language & Linguistics 23(2). 212–239.

Geniušienė, Emma Š. 1987. The Typology of Reflexives. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Georgakopoulos, Thanasis & Stéphane Polis. 2018. The semantic map model: State of the art and future avenues for linguistic research. Language and Linguistics Compass 12(2). e12270.

Gerdts, Donna B. & Thomas E. Hukari. 2006. The Halkomelem Middle: A Complex Network of Constructions. Anthropological Linguistics 48(1). 44–81.

Giacalone-Ramat, Anna & Andrea Sansò. 2014. Venire 'come' as a passive auxiliary in Italian. In Maud Devos & Jenneke van der Wal (eds.), “COME” and “GO” off the Beaten Grammaticalization Path, 21–44. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Gibert-Sotelo, Elisabeth. 2018. Deriving ablative, privative, and reversative meanings in Catalan and Spanish. Borealis 7(2). 161–185.

Gijn, Rik van. 2010. Middle voice and ideophones, a diachronic connection: The case of Yurakaré. Studies in Language 34(2). 273–297.

Gil, David. 2017. Roon ve, DO/GIVE coexpression, and language contact in Northwest New Guinea. NUSA 62. 41-100.

Gravelle, Gilles. 2002. Morphosyntactic properties of Meyah word classes. In Ger P. Reesink (ed.), Languages of the eastern Bird’s Head, 109–180. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies.

Gravelle, Gloria Jean. 2010. A Grammar of Moskona: an East Bird’s Head Language of West Papua, Indonesia. PhD Dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Grestenberger, Laura. 2016. Reconstructing Proto-Indo-European Deponents. Indo-European Linguistics 4(1). 98–149.

Grinevald, Colette. 1990. A grammar of Rama. Report to National Science Foundation.

Gronemeyer, Claire. 1999. On deriving complex polysemy: the grammaticalization of get. English Language & Linguistics 3(1). 1–39.

Guérois, Rozenn. 2015. A grammar of Cuwabo (Mozambique, Bantu P34). PhD Dissertation, Université Lumière Lyon 2.

Guérois, Rozenn & Koen Bostoen. 2018. On the origins of passive allomorphy in Cuwabo (Bantu P34). Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 36(3). 211–233.

Gunnik, Hilde. 2018. A grammar of Fwe. A Bantu language of Zambia and Namibia. PhD Dissertation, Ghent University.

Haas, Mary. 1977. From auxiliary verb to inflectional suffix. In Charles Li (ed.), Mechanisms of Syntactic Change, 525–537. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Haiman, John. 2011. Cambodian. loall.16. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Handel, Zev. 2012. Valence-Changing Prefixes and Voicing Alternation in Old Chinese and Proto-Sino-Tibetan: Reconstructing *s- and *N- Prefixes. Language and Linguistics 13(1). 61–82.

Harđarson, Jón A. 1998. Mit dem Suffix *-eh1- bzw. *-(e)h1-i̯e/o- gebildete Verbalstämme im Indogermanischen. In Wolfgang Meid (ed.), Sprache und Kultur der Indogermanen: Akten der X. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft Innsbruck, 22.-28. September 1996, 323–339. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft.

Hardy, Donald E. 1994. Middle Voice in Creek. International Journal of American Linguistics 60(1). 39–68.

Hardy, Heather K. & Timothy Montler. 1991. The formation of the Alabama middle voice. Lingua 85(1). 1–15.

Haspelmath, Martin. 1987. Transitivity alternations of the anticausative type. Köln: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft.

Haspelmath, Martin. 1990. The Grammaticization of Passive Morphology. Studies in Language 14(1). 25–72.

Haspelmath, Martin. 1993a. A Grammar of Lezgian. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Haspelmath, Martin. 1993b. More on the typology of the inchoative/causative verb alternations. In Bernard Comrie & Maria Polinsky (eds.), Causatives and Transitivity, 87–120. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Haspelmath, Martin. 2016. Universals of causative and anticausative verb formation and the spontaneity scale. Lingua Posnaniensis 58(2). 33–63.

Healey, Phyllis M. 1965. Levels, constituent strings, and agreement in Telefol syntax. PhD Dissertation, Australian National University.

Heath, Jeffrey. 2005. A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali). Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Heath, Jeffrey. 2014. Grammar of Humburi Senni (Songhay of Hombori, Mali). Ms.

Heidinger, Steffen. 2010. French anticausatives: A diachronic perspective. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Heine, Bernd. 2002. On the role of context in grammaticalization. In Ilse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald (eds.), New Reflections on Grammaticalization, 83–102. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Hill, Jane H. 2005. A Grammar of Cupeño. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Hill, Jane H. & Kenneth C. Hill. 2019. Comparative Takic Grammar. Survey Reports, Survey of California and Other Indian Languages. Berkeley.

Holvoet, Axel. 2020. The Middle Voice in Baltic. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Honeyman, Thomas. 2017. A grammar of Momu, a language of Papua New Guinea. PhD Dissertation, Australian National University.

Horvath, Julia & Tal Siloni. 2011. Anticausatives: Against reflexivization. Lingua 121(15). 2176–2186.

Hualde, José Ignacio & Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.). 2003. A Grammar of Basque. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Inglese, Guglielmo & Simone Mattiola. 2020. Pluractionality in Hittite: A new look at the suffix -ške/a-. STUF - Language Typology and Universals 73(2). 261–303.

Inglese, Guglielmo. 2020. The Hittite middle voice: synchrony, diachrony, typology. Leiden: Brill.

Inglese, Guglielmo. 2021. Anticausativization and basic valency orientation in Latin. In Silvia Luraghi & Elisa Roma (eds.), Valency over time, 133–168. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Inglese, Guglielmo. 2022a. Towards a typology of middle voice systems. Linguistic Typology 26(3). 489–531.

Inglese, Guglielmo. 2022b. The rise of middle voice systems: a study in diachronic typology. Diachronica aop.

Jacques, Guillaume. 2015. The spontaneous-autobenefactive prefix in Japhug Rgyalrong. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 38(2). 271–291.

Jacques, Guillaume. 2016. How Many *-s Suffixes in Old Chinese? Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics 9(2). 205–217.

Jacques, Guillaume. 2021. A grammar of Japhug. Language Science Press. Berlin: Language Science Press.

Jaggar, Philip. 1988. Affected-subject (‘grade 7’) verbs in Hausa: What are they and where do they come from. In Masayoshi Shibatani (ed.), Passive and Voice, 387–416. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Jaggar, Philip. 2001. Hausa. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Jakobi, Angelika, Joachim Crass & Bakhit Seby Abdoulaye. 2004. Grammaire du beria (langue saharienne). Köln: Köppe.

Janhunen, Juha A. 2012. Mongolian. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Jasanoff, Jay H. 2004. ‘Stative’ *-ē- revisited. Die Sprache 43. 127–170.

Joswig, Andreas. 2019. The Majang Language. Utrecht: LOT.

Karaj, Dawid & Andrea Sansò. Forthcoming. From agent-oriented verbalizer to middle marker: The diachrony of the middle voice in Malayo-Sumbawan. STUF - Language Typology and Universals.

Kawachi, Kazuhiro. 2007. A Grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic Language of Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation, State University of New York.

Kemmer, Suzanne. 1993. The Middle Voice. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Kim, Yuni. 2005. Topics in the Phonology and Morphology of San Francisco del Mar Huave. PhD Dissertation, University of California (Berkeley).

Kittilä, Seppo. 2000. Causative morphemes as a de-transitivizing device: what do non-canonical instances reveal about causation and causativization? Folia Linguistica 47(1). 113–137.

Koontz-Garboden, Andrew. 2009. Anticausativization. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 27(1). 77–138.

Koul, Omkar Nath. 2008. Modern Hindi grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press.

Kouwenberg, Norbertus J. C. 2010. The Akkadian Verb and Its Semitic Background. Winona Lake (Indiana): Eisenbrauns.

Kulikov, Leonid. 2011. Passive to anticausative through impersonalization. The case of Vedic and Indo-European. In Andrej Malchukov & Anna Siewierska (eds.), Impersonal Constructions: A Cross-linguistic Perspective, 229–254. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Kulikov, Leonid. 2012. The Vedic -ya-presents: Passives and Intransitivity in Old Indo-Aryan. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Kullmann, Rita & D. Tserenpil. 2008. Mongolian Grammar. Ulaanbaatar: Academy of Sciences.

Kung, Susan Smythe. 2007. A Descriptive Grammar of Huehuetla Tepehua. PhD Dissertation, University of Texas (Austin).

Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Bo Hong, Haiping Long, Heiko Narrog & Seongha Rhee. 2019. World Lexicon of Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

LaPolla, Randy. 1996. Middle voice marking in Tibeto-Burman. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics: Pan-Asiatic Linguistics (January 8-10, 1996) 5. 1940–1954.

Lazzeroni, Romano. 1990. La diatesi come categoria linguistica. Studi sul medio indoeuropeo. Studi e Saggi Linguistici 33(2). 11–23.

Lazzeroni, Romano. 2004. Inaccusatività indoeuropea e alternanza causativa vedica. Archivio Glottologico Italiano 89(2). 139–164.

Lehmann, Christian. 2015. Thoughts on grammaticalization (3rd edn.). Berlin: Language Science Press.

Lenz, Alexandra N. & Gudrun Rawoens. 2012. The art of getting: GET verbs in European languages from a synchronic and diachronic point of view: Introduction. Linguistics 50(6). 1075–1078.

Levin, Beth. 1993. English Verb Classes and Alternations: A Preliminary Investigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lichtenberk, Frantisek. 2000. Reciprocals without reflexives. In Zygmunt Frajzyngier & Traci S. Curl (eds.), Reciprocals: Forms and Functions, 32–62. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Liljegren, Henrik. 2016. A grammar of Palula. Berlin: Language Science Press.

López Nicolás, Óscar. 2016. Estudios de la fonología y gramática del zapoteco de Zoochina. PhD Dissertation, CIESAS (Ciudad de México).

Luraghi, Silvia. 2012. Basic valency orientation and the middle voice in Hittite. Studies in Language 36(1). 1–32.

Luraghi, Silvia, Guglielmo Inglese & Daniel Kölligan. 2021. The passive voice in ancient Indo-European languages: inflection, derivation, periphrastic verb forms. Folia Linguistica Historica 42(2). 339–391.

MacKay, Carolyn Joyce. 1999. A Grammar of Misantla Totonac. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

Magni, Elisabetta. 2010. L’evoluzione semantico-funcionale dell’elemento -θ- nella morfologia verbale del greco. In Ignazio Putzu, Giulio Paulis, Gianfranco Nieddu & Pierluigi Cuzzolin (eds.), La morfologia del greco tra tipologia e diacronia, 266–287. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Malchukov, Andrej & Igor V. Nedjalkov. 2015. Valency classes in Even (North Tungusic) in a comparative Tungusic perspective. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency Classes in the World’s Languages, vol. 1, 571–627. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Malchukov, Andrej. 2015. Valency classes and alternation: parameters of variation. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency Classes in the World’s Languages, vol. 1, 73–130. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Martin, Jack B. 2011. A Grammar of Creek (Muskogee). Lincoln / London: University of Nebraska Press.

Martínez Corripio, Israel & Ricardo Maldonado. 2010. Middles and reflexives in Yucatec Maya: Trusting speaker intuition. In Daisy Rosenblum, Jean Gail Mulder & Andrea L. Berez (eds.), Fieldwork and linguistic analysis in indigenous languages of the Americas, 147–171. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Martínez Rojas, Lucía, Veróniqua Orqueda, Francisca Toro Varela, & Berta González Saavedra. 2021. Desarrollo diacrónico de las funciones de se y sibi del latín arcaico al latín clásico. Boletín de Filología 56(2). 483–517.

Martins, Silvana Andrade. 2004. Fonologia e Gramática Dâw. Utrecht: LOT.

Matisoff, James. 2003. Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman: System and Philosophy of Sino-Tibetan Reconstruction. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Mattiola, Simone & Andrea Sansò. 2021. A typology of denominal verb formation. Paper presented at the 54th SLE Meeting, online.

McFarland, Teresa Ann. 2009. The phonology and morphology of Filomeno Mata Totonac. PhD Dissertation, University of California (Berkeley).

McGregor, William B. 2002. Verb Classification in Australian Languages. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

McGregor, William B. 2013. Grammaticalisation of verbs into temporal and modal markers in Australian languages. In Folke Josephson & Ingmar Söhrman (eds.), Diachronic and typological perspectives on verbs, 107–132. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Mithun, Marianne. 2000. Valency-changing derivation in Central Alaskan Yup’ik. In R. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Aikhenvald (eds.), Changing Valency: Case Studies in Transitivity, 84–114. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mocciaro, Egle. 2014. Passive in motion: the Early Italian auxiliary andare (‘to go’). In Maud Devos & Jenneke van der Wal (eds.), “COME” and “GO” off the Beaten Grammaticalization Path, 45–68. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Morgan, Lawrence. 1991. A Description of the Kutenai Language. PhD Dissertation, University of California (Berkeley).

Mushin, Ilana. 2012. A Grammar of (Western) Garrwa. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Narrog, Heiko. 2016. Japanese transitivity pairs through time–a historical and typological perspective. In Taro Kageyama & Wesley M. Jacobsen (eds.), Transitivity and Valency Alternations: Studies on Japanese and Beyond, 249–268. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Nava, Fernando & Ricardo Maldonado. 2004. Basic Voice Patterns in Tarascan (P’orhepecha). In Michael Achard & Suzanne Kemmer (eds.), Language, Culture, and Mind, 461–477. CSLI Publications. Stanford.

Nedjalkov, Igor V. 1993. Causative-passive polysemy of the Manchu-Tungusic -bu/-v(u)-. Antwerpen: Hoger Instituut voor Vertalers en Tolken 27. 193–202.

Nedjalkov, Vladimir P. & Georgij G. Silnitsky. 1973. The Typology of Morphological and Lexical Causatives. In Ferenc Kiefer (ed.), Trends in Soviet Theoretical Linguistics, 1–32. Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing.

Nichols, Johanna. 2011. Ingush Grammar. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Nichols, Johanna, David A. Peterson & Jonathan Barnes. 2004. Transitivizing and detransitivizing languages. Linguistic Typology 8(2). 149–211.

Nikolaeva, Irina & Maria Tolskaya. 2001. A Grammar of Udihe. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Okrand, Marc. 1977. Mutsun Grammar. PhD Dissertation, University of California (Berkeley).

Pacchiarotti, Sara & Leonid Kulikov. 2022. Bribri media tantum verbs and the rise of labile syntax. Linguistics. 60(2). 617–657.

Park, Indrek. 2012. A grammar of Hidatsa. PhD Dissertation, Indiana University.

Parker, Gary J. 1976. Gramática del quechua Áncash-Huaylas. Lima: IEP.

Pawley, Andrew K. 1972. On the internal relationship of eastern Oceanic languages. In Roger C. Green & Marian Kelly (eds.), Studies in Oceanic culture history, 1–142. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.

Peña, Jaime G. 2015. A grammar of Wampis. PhD Dissertation, University of Oregon.

Petrollino, Sara. 2016. A Grammar of Hamar: A South Omotic Language of Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation, Leiden University.

Pharris, Nicholas J. 2006. Winuunsi Tm Talapaas: a grammar of the Molalla language. PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Pinkster, Harm. 2015. The Oxford Latin Syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Polian, Gilles. 2013. Gramática del tseltal de Oxchuc. Ciudad de Mexico: CIESAS.

Post, Mark. 2007. A Grammar of Galo. PhD Dissertation, La Trobe University.

Pucilowski, Anna. 2013. Topics in Ho morphophonology and morphosyntax. PhD Dissertation, University of Oregon.

Rappaport Hovav, Malka & Beth Levin. 2010. Reflections on manner/result complementarity. In Malka Rappaport Hovav, Edit Doron & Ivy Sichel (eds.), Lexical Semantics, Syntax, and Event Structure, 21–38. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reh, Mechthild. 1985. Die Krongo-Sprache (Nìinò Mó-Dì). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.

Renck, Günther L. 1975. A Grammar of Yagaria. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU.

Riese, Timothy. 2001. Vogul. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Robinson, Stuart. 2011. Split intransitivity in Rotokas, a Papuan language of Bougainville. PhD Dissertation, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Rojas Berscia, Luis Miguel. 2013. La sintaxis y semántica de las construcciones causativas en el chayahuita de Balsapuerto. MA. Thesis, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

Romagno, Domenica. 2014. The aorist in “-en” in Homeric Greek: at the morphosyntax-semantics interface: a thorough analysis of Iliad and Odyssey. Archivio glottologico italiano 99(2). 155–186.

Rombandeeva, E. I. 1973. Mansijskij (vogul’skij) jazyk. Moscow: Nauka.

Roset, Caroline. 2018. A grammar of Darfur Arabic. Utrecht: LOT.

Ruijh, Cornelius J. 2004. The Stative Value of the PIE Verbal Suffix *-eh1-. In John Penney (ed.), Indo-European Perspectives: Studies In Honour of Anna Morpurgo Davies, 48–64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sakel, Jeanette. 2007. The verbness markers of Mosetén from a typological perspective. In Matti Miestamo & Bernhard Wälchli (eds.), New Challenges in Typology: Broadening the Horizons and Redefining the Foundations, 315–335. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Sakel, Jeanette. 2011. A Grammar of Mosetén. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Salminen, Mikko. 2016. A Grammar of Umbeyajts as spoken by the Ikojts people of San Dionisio del Mar, Oaxaca, Mexico. PhD Dissertation, James Cook University.

Sansò, Andrea. 2016. Agent-defocusing constructions from nominalized VPs: A cross-linguistic type? Studies in Language 40(4). 894–954.

Sansò, Andrea. 2017. Where do antipassive constructions come from?: A study in diachronic typology. Diachronica 34(2). 175–218.

Sansò, Andrea. 2020. Routes towards the irrealis. Transactions of the Philological Society 118(3). 401–446.

Sasaki, Kan. 2016. Anticausativization in the northern dialects of Japanese. In Taro Kageyama & Wesley M. Jacobsen (eds.), Transitivity and Valency Alternations: Studies on Japanese and Beyond, 183–214. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Schackow, Diana. 2015. A grammar of Yakkha. Berlin: Language Science Press.

Schadeberg, Thilo. 1982. Les suffixes verbaux séparatifs en bantou. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 4. 55–66.

Schadeberg, Thilo & Koen Bostoen. 2019. Word formation. In Mark Van de Velde, Koen Bostoen, Derek Nurse & Gérard Philippson (eds.), The Bantu Languages (2nd edn.), 172–203. London: Routledge.

Schäfer, Florian. 2008. The Syntax of (anti-)causatives: External Arguments in Change-of-state Contexts. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Schäfer, Florian. 2009. The Causative Alternation. Language and Linguistics Compass 3(2). 641–681.

Schrock, Terrill. 2017. The Ik language. Language Science Press. Berlin: Language Science Press.

Schultze-Berndt, Eva. 2000. Simple and Complex Verbs in Jaminjung: A Study of Event Categorisation in an Australian Language. PhD Dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen.

Schultze-Berndt, Eva. 2008. What do “do” verbs do? The semantic diversity of generalised action verbs. In Elisabeth Verhoeven, Stavros Skopetas, Yong-Min Shin, Yoko Nishina & Johannes Helmbrecht (eds.), Studies on Grammaticalization, 185–208. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Segerer, Guillaume. 2002. La langue bijogo de Bubaque (Guinée Bissau). Louvain: Peeters.

Seidel, Frank. 2008. A Grammar of Yeyi: A Bantu Language of Southern Africa. Köln: Köppe.

Shamin, Fatma. 2018. Conjunct verbs in Hindi. In Ghanshyam Sharma & Rajesh Bhatt (eds.), Trends in Hindi Linguistics, 214–244. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Simpson, Andrew & Hồ Hảo Tâm. 2013. Vietnamese and the typology of passive constructions. In Daniel Hole & Elisabeth Löbel (eds.), Linguistics of Vietnamese: An International Survey, 155–184. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Song, Jae Jung. 1996. Causatives and Causation: A Universal -typological perspective. London: Longman.

Squartini, Mario. 2003. La grammaticalizzazione di <venire + participio> in Italiano. In Claus D. Pusch & Andreas Wesch (eds.), Verbalperiphrasen in den (ibero-)romanischen Sprachen, 23–34. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Steeman, Sander. 2012. A grammar of Sandawe a Khoisan language of Tanzania. Utrecht: LOT.

Suttles, Wayne P. 2004. Musqueam Reference Grammar. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Troiani, Duna. 2007. Fonología y morfosintaxis de la lengua totonaca: Municipio de Huehuetla, Sierra Norte de Puebla. Mexico, D.F.: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

Tubino-Blanco, Mercedes. 2020. Causative-Inchoative in Morphology. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Turner, Katherine. 1987. Aspects of Salinan Grammar. PhD Dissertation, University of California (Berkeley).

Vajda, Edward J. 2015. Valency properties of the Ket verb clause. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency Classes in the World’s Languages, vol. 1, 629–668. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Wagner, Peter. 2012. A Grammar of North West Lovari Romani. PhD Dissertation, Univerzita Karlova v Praze.

Wakasa, Motomichi. 2008. A Descriptive Study of the Modern Wolaytta Language. PhD Dissertation, University of Tokyo.

Watters, David. 2006. Notes on Kusunda Grammar: A language isolate of Nepal. Himalayan Linguistics Archive 3. 1–182.

Wegener, Claudia. 2012. A Grammar of Savosavo. A Grammar of Savosavo. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Widmer, Manuel. 2018. A Grammar of Bunan. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.

Willi, Andreas. 2018. Origins of the Greek Verb. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yap, Foong Ha & Mikyung Ahn. 2019. Development of grammatical voice marking in Korean: On the causative, middle and passive uses of suffix -i. Lingua 219. 1–23.

Yarapea, Apoi Mason. 2006. Morphosyntax of Kewapi. PhD Dissertation, Australian National University.

Yeon, Jaehoon & Lucien Brown. 2011. Korean: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge.

Zúñiga, Fernando & Seppo Kittilä. 2019. Grammatical Voice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.




How to Cite

Inglese G. Cross-linguistic sources of anticausative markers. LTC [Internet]. 2022Jan.1 [cited 2023Dec.4];2(2):127-86. Available from:



Research articles